Staircase wiring
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Wiring Practice – Staircase wiring

A simple and practical way to set up staircase wiring is explained here. To operate a lamp from two different points by two switches at two different modes, connected with the help of staircase wiring. List of Materials required 1) 230 V, 5A SPDT switches – 2 2) Switch box – 2 3) 230V, 60W Lamp…

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Sample Linux server (web centric) back up script in PERL

Below is a sample, detailed, PERL script for backing up your web centric Linux server. It includes ways to creating tgz of required areas, pushing them to magnetic tapes, other backup servers and even on to desktops –   Code:   #!/usr/bin/perl use POSIX qw(strftime);   umask 0000;  #####################################################  # This Program is a custom…

Server Synchronization Technology for a Distributed server architecture
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Paper – Server Synchronization Technology for a Distributed server architecture (DSA)

Requirement: Company xyz has now decided to extend the current system as distributed server architecture, expanding over 46 locations. There will be a central server which will be running from xyz HQ. There will 46 independent host severs running at various locations across the nation, which will be loaded with product management software. These independent…

Web application architecture
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Sample (cheap) Web application architecture

A sample customized web application architecture is as shown below – As shown above, all the three tiers of the web server architecture, namely database server, business logic and presentation, are represented. The Apache web server, PHP engine, Database drivers and other utilities are closely compiled so as to improve speed and performance. The database…

Good Systems Analyst
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Attributes of a Good System Analyst

A system analyst is a person who conducts a methodical study and evaluation of various aspects related to business to identify the desired objectives and work out procedures to attain them. The system analyst is a person with unique skills – common sense, a structured framework and a disciplined approach to solving problems are a…

Decision Table
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Decision Table

A decision table represents the comlex decision logic associated with a data-processing job. A decision table summarized the action to be taken depending on the values of conditions that exist at the time the decision table is consulted. Decision tables override system flow charts in more complex circumstances, particularly those where several criteria determine an…

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System Life Cycle – Classical definition

A system is a set of interacting elements that responds to inputs producing outputs. The events which together make up the development, operation and maintenance of such a computer system or information management system may be referred to as the ‘System Life Cycle’. The different elements of a system life cycle are – 1. Initial Study –…

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What is the backbone of SOA connectivity?

This is a core question that we need to ask when we talk about SOA (Service oriented architecture). SOA connects enterprise components within and outside by easy integration, coordination and loosely coupled processes that can be coupled easily. The main theme that comes up when the number of interacting components increases is the complex messaging…

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Best Wire-framing / Prototyping tools

One of the most sought tools for a web designer / UI expert / anyone who wants to mock up a user interface based IT system/software is a wire-framing tool. Wire-framing is nothing but building screen / user interface mock of the targeted system which could be used as the medium to convey the user…

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Which REST framework should I use

There are multiple Java based REST frameworks that is use today. Some of the top players are as below –                 1. Reslet – http://www.restlet.org/                 2. Apache CXF – http://cxf.apache.org/ ,  http://cxf.apache.org/docs/jax-rs.html, http://jax-ws.java.net/2.2.7/docs/                 3. JAX-RS Reference implementation – Jersey – http://jersey.java.net/                 All of the above frameworks supports J2EE resident Webservice API for…

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HTTP Methods – Which HTTP method should I use and what methods are used in REST

HTTP methods are convenient methods that an outside process can use over simple http transport layer. For example REST (Representational transfer technology) uses http methods to communicate back and forth between resources/entities. There are two basic kinds of http methods – Safe and Idempotent methods. Simply put, safe methods are those methods (GET, HEAD) which…

Treating Product Requirements
Agile development

Treating product requirements – The ideal way

Product requirements need to be treated with suspicion as if they really needed for the essential capability for a product release. Always prioritize product requirements and keep the bare minimum and most needed requirements on the top of the product backlog with fine-grained description of the requirements which could be easily implemented using any development…

Agile
Agile development

Agile / Scrum methodology – Explained simple

Agile software development methodology is suitable for time-boxed iterative system development scenarios. The software product is released as various versions or releases, typically in time-boxes of a month. Agile development assumes and welcomes delays and late requirements or scope changes even during development/testing phase! Agile software development might not be suitable for all software development…

Outside Caliper
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Using Outside Caliper – Physical data gathering

Outside caliper is a two legged precision instrument used for measuring or comparing thickness diameter and outside dimensions. The legs are tapered inwards and their ends are thin to make accurate measurement. The size of this caliper is found by taking the perpendicular distance from the center of the rivets to the leg points. If…

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Basics of Mechanical Fitting and safety

Fitting is the assembling together of parts and removal of metals to secure necessary fit. Following safety measures need to be taken in fitting workshop – 1. Files must have well fitted handles 2. See that work piece is perfectly clamped or fixed in the vice. 3. Never use hammers with loose heads. 4. Use the…

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Events and States

Events and States are differentiated below – Events States Anything that happen in time Shows the attributes values of object at a particular point in time An event separate two states A state separates two events An event is said to have happened without regard to whether it changes a state or not A state…

Actors and Data Stores
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Actors and Data Stores

Actors: Actors are objects represented in the functional model that produce or consume data. An actor may store some data for further processing steps. Data Stores: Data stores are store house of data represented in the functional model. A data store could only store or consume data, but could not produce data. Below is an…

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State Diagram – Car

The state diagram may be drawn by considering the concurrency property of the aggregate objects that make up the car object ie. each aggregate object has a state of its own. Below is a sample state diagram for a Car object – Below is the state diagram for Ignition System – State Diagram – Transmission…

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Main features of Object Oriented Languages – Classes, Objects, Encapsulation, Polymorphism, Inheritance

1. Classes and Objects In an object oriented programming language, we code the program as a corporate collection of objects which are instantiated from various class abstractions. A class is only a logical abstraction and has no physical existence. An object is a specific instance of the class and it has physical existence inside the…

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Abstraction

Abstraction may be defined as all those essential characteristics features of an object class which makes it different from other object classes. Abstraction as applied to inheritance refers to the specific features defined for each subclass in the class hierarchy. Such a representation of the object class including only its essential attributes and operations, leaving…

Multiplicity
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Multiplicity

Multiplicity refers to the number of object class instances of one class may be associated to the other class. An n+ symbol indicates that there can be n or >n associations of the object class near to the n+ symbol to the other associated class. A solid ball indicates 1 or >1 associations and a…

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Inheritance

Inheritance is the most basic feature of any Object Oriented programming language. It refers to the derivation of sub classes from a base/super class. The inherited sub classes inherit the common / basic features of the base / super class at the same time implements their own specific features. Inheritance helps us to reduce the…

qualification
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Qualification

Qualification is an association which involves an association and a qualifier which uniquely identifies certain features of one of the associated classes. Below example explains it. Multiplicity of association changed from many – many to many to 1. Stock exchange + Ticker symbol = Company

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Object Modeling Technique (OMT)

Object Modeling Technique used in object oriented modeling and design which use the usual principles of system development like analysis, design an implementation but applying object oriented software design. Using OMT, we model design and implement the system in terms of real-world objects in the application domain. This involves the use of three different system…

Microcomputer
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Aggregation

Aggregation refers to combining the assembled parts of a single part. In terms of Object Management Technology, aggregation may be defined as representing the object classes as a hierarchy such that the object class at the root may only be visualized by aggregating other object classes in the hierarchy or in otherwords aggregation relates an…

Reengineering
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Reengineering Principles

The standard Reengineering principles are as follows – 1. Organize work around its end results, not tasks According to this principle, it is optimal to determine the work’s end result rather than dividing the work into small tasks & units. We try to rearrange the work process so that a single person can perform all…

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Why Companies Do Reengineering?

Companies are doing reengineering since they want to remain stable in the dynamic business environment while facing changing strategies, financial crisis due to weak / poor / outdated business processes, technological changes, change in customer demands & business competition. Everyone is going for reengineering since it usually provides a quick fix for the present problem…

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Reengineering an accounts payable function

Consider the case of approving a loan application. In the manual process, it takes 6 persons and considerable amount of time to accept the details, calculating risks and repayment capabilities and letting the application trail through hands of various functional levels. But, when we reengineer the above process, the whole process may be converted to…

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Creating Process based Organizations via Reengineering

While reengineering a business enterprise, we create a process based organization structure for the enterprise to avoid the inefficiencies and time wasting business process cycles as in a functions based organization. ie – the business process information systems and the enterprise wide information infrastructure are integrated in such a way that the people of various functions…

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Basic approaches to Reengineering

The three basic approaches to reengineering are as follows – 1. STREAMLIING 2. INTEGRATING 3. TRANSFORMING 1. Streamlining – Streamlining approach to reengineering the business offers a basic, segmented, quick-fix methodology for reengineering. It cleans up and treats symptoms but doesn’t  necessarily transform a process nor find a cure for a bad process. It doesn’t…

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Basic steps in Business Process Reengineering

We can generalize Business Process Reengineering (BPR) efforts as an eight step process as follow – Step 1: Formulate / Modify business visions, policies, objectives Step 2: Formulate / Modify business strategies according to changing customer requirements, technology changes and competition Step 3: Analyze the existing business process cycles & workflows and determine how they…

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Lack of Risk Management and an affected project

A classic example would be the project my company executed before the formal PM processes were implemented. The project’s core requirement was to generate reporting system for Medical Underwriting process. There was no Risk Planning for sure, otherwise the company would not have gone through two major design changes and the most worse cases of…

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Project size driving Project risk

Project size and Project Risk: Another interesting topic in Project Management world. From my experience with software development, I think that project risk increases with the size of the project (I guess the size of the product would be directly proportional to the project size). Here is the reason – Consider that software product consists…

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Addressing risk due to interpersonal issues and incorrect project communication

Interesting question as I wonder this situation (Risk of failure due to interpersonal issues) is often less addressed anywhere. I shall address the situation using formal approach. Definition of Risk and symptoms: I would consider that the Risk (Project failure due to interpersonal issues within the team or between the team and other stakeholders) is already…

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Team Building/Motivation practices

What kind of team-building exercises and/or motivational practices have you used, or participated in? Would you recommend them for use by others? Have you been involved in a project that did not use such an activity or practice, but could have benefited from it?  Team building experience: The crux of all the team building methods are…

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Sample Software Quality Issue

One of the major Software Quality issue that I experienced is with product xyz which my current employer deployed as the Version control and Change control system (SCCM). xyz is one of the major players (not the top performer) which offers composite package of Version control and Software Change Control management (SCCM). Our company was…

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Quality considerations for software projects

Define one or two aspects of IT product quality that should be considered when planning software project activities. How can they be measured? What are the foreseeable consequences of poor quality from your example(s)? How can the negative consequences be avoided?   Interesting question. Some of the most important software quality aspects are – Scope aspect of quality that…

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Quality Program in a typical organization

What quality programs, formal or informal, have you experienced in your work? How well do you feel they were implemented? What was the level of management involvement? If you have not experienced working in such an environment, what would you look for to determine whether a company’s quality program was working?  I have had experience…

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Time reporting for technology professionals?

How do you feel about the concept of such time accounting for technology professionals? (e.g. compared to just reporting progress via e-mail or a progress reporting form.)  I guess, this is one the easiest ways to track actual cost/effort estimates for any IT project, so best suited for IT professionals. Reporting progress via email or…