## C Programming Language

C language developed at Bell lab by Dennis Ritchie on UNIX environment. UNIX was later rewritten in C. An earlier version of C is BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) developed by Ken Thompson. When it was later improvised by Dennis, it became C (‘C’ from BCPL) programming language. C program could be written either in…

## Recursive C program for Binary search

Below is an example Recursive C program to perform Binary – int binsearch(int low, int high, in a[], X){ int mid; if(low > high){ return(-1); } mid = (low + high) / 2; return(X == a[mid] ? mid : X < a [mid] ? binsearch(low, mid-1, a[], X) : binsearch (mid+1,high,a[],X)) }

## Recursive C program to print Fibonacci series

Below is an example recursive C program to return Fibonacci series for a given number – int fibonacci (int x){ if(n < 0){ printf("Invalid input"); exit(1); } else{ return ((n==1 || n==1)? n : fib(n-2) + fib(n-1)); } }

## C program for finding factorial by recursion

Here is a C program to find a factorial by recursive method – int factorial (int x ) { return ( n==0? 1: n*(fact(n-1))); }

## Tree representation in C

Below is an example to represent a Tree structure in C using struct

## Gregory Newton Backward Interpolation Method

Gregory Newton Backward Interpolation Method can be used to derive difference formula when the x values are at equidistant intervals and the value to be interpolated lies towards the end of the table. Below is a detailed explanation of how to apply Gregory Newton Backward Interpolation Method –

## Reducing Lagranges interpolation formula to Linear interpolation

Below is an amazing solution to prove that when n=2, Lagranges interpolation formula reduces to Linear interpolation –

## Mobile Communication Services

One of the fastest growth rates in the telecommunications industry anywhere in the world is that of mobile radio communication devices. The basic architecture of such a mobile communication network is shown below –   Radio telephones or cell phones provide a switched two-way channel between two conversing parties like a conventional telephone. Telephones may…

## Digitized Phone Services (E-10B)

Olden form of phone systems involved manual exchanges which involved a great task in switching and routing of calls to various subscribers that increased network traffic and longer setup times. Also, fault checking and identification was very difficult. With the introduction of electronic exchanges which used a stored program concept of switching and routing of…

## Early Evolution of Data Commmunication Systems

It’s helpful for data communication and IT students to understand the evolution of Data communication systems. The first phase in the evolution of data communication systems was Telegraph Systems. Later, with developments in the telephone systems, it was then possible to interconnect various computer terminals for data communication. With the advancements in network computing and the…

## Data Communication and its basic setup

Data Communications is the function of transferring a digital signal from one digital device to another. Data transmission and data communications mean two different things. Data communication has a much wider meaning which embraces not just electrical transmission but, any other factors involved in controlling, checking and handling the movement in a communication-based computer system….

## C program to convert a postfix string to prefix form

Below is sample C program to convert a postfix string to prefix form. Also included is detailed flow chart of the program and dry run for couple different use cases.

## C program to convert a prefix string to infix form

Below is sample C program to convert a prefix string to infix form. Also included is detailed flow chart of the program and dry run for couple different use cases.

## Example for Preorder and Postorder traversal of a Binary tree

Below is an example that I prepared for preorder and postorder traversal of a Binary Tree – enjoy!

## Traversing a Binary Tree in Postorder

Below is the algorithm and C routine for traversing a Binary Tree in postorder.

## Traversing a Binary Tree in Preorder

A binary tree can be traversed in two basic ways – preorder and postorder. Explained below is the process or preorder traverse of a binary tree with an algorithm and the actual C routine.

## Binary Tree

Binary Tree is a basic data structure that is used behind the scenes of all major technologies whether it’s a Database system or operating system, search engine, Bleeding edge AI systems, Big data or cloud based architectures.

## Testing convergence of a sample Logarithmic series using Leibnitz’s rule

Below is the solution to test convergence of a sample Logarithmic series –

## Finding maximum power transmitted neglecting centrifugal tension

Below is a sample problem and its solution to find maximum power transmitted in a scenario where we need to neglect centrifugal tension.

## Finding power transmitted by a belt given max tension

Below is the solution to find power transmitted by a belt given maximum permissible tension and rpm of a larger pulley –

## Finding maximum power transmitted from maximum belt stress

Here is a problem involving V-belt where we calculate the maximum power transmitted from the maximum belt stress and other attributes in the system –

## Finding Velocity and maximum power transmitted

Here is an interesting solution to find velocity and maximum power transmitted –

## Finding Torque and power transmitted

Here is an interesting problem and solution to calculate torque and power transmitted of a shaft and pulley system. You can easily extend this to larger systems.

## Finding maximum power transmitted and initial tension

Its interesting to use the mechanical formulas to find maximum power transmitted and initial tension given the characteristic features of a flat belt pulley system. Below is an example problem and its solution –

## Finding power transmitted by a pulley

Here is a real life mechanical problem to solve – Two parallel shafts whose center lines are 4.8m apart are connected on an open belt drive. The diameter of the larger pullet is 1.5m and that of the smaller pulley is 1.05m. The initial tension in the belt when stationary is 3KN. The mass of…

## Finding maximum cross sectional area of a Mechanical belt

Question: A leather belt transmits 30 KW from a pulley 750 mm diameter which runs at 500 rpm. The belt is in contact with the pullry over an arc of 160° and coefficient of friction, μ = 0.3. If the permissible stress in the belt is not to exceed 2 MN / m^2, find the maximum…

## Finding Tight side and Slack side tension of a mechanical belt

Question: An electric motor provides 6.6 KW to a belt driven pulley 125 mm in diameter. The speed of the pulley is 1050 rpm. Calculate the tight side and slack side tension of the belt if they are in the ratio 7:2? Ans: Given: Power, P = 6.6KW Diameter, d = 125×10^-3m Speed of the pulley,…

## Discussing Convergence of Iteration and Newton Raphson Methods

We use various Numerical methods to solve algebraic and transcendental equations. All these methods converge the result to a single root after various approximations specific to each method. In this article we delve into details of rate of convergence of two popular methods – Iterative and Newton Raphson method. Enjoy!

## Solving Equations by Jacobi’s Iteration Method

Jacobi’s Iteration method is an interesting method to solve equations by simple iteration method. Here is an example –

## Solving a set of equations using Gauss Seidal Elimination Method

Here is an excellent example of Gauss Seidal elimination method to solve a set of equations –

## Finding Inverse of a Matrix using Gauss Elimination Method

Here is an intelligent and simple way to find the inverse of a matrix using Gauss Elimination method –

## Gauss Jordan Elimination Method

Here is a well explained solution to solve a set of equations using Gauss Jordan Elimination method –

## Gauss Elimination Method

Below is a well explained solution for a set of equations using Gauss Elimination method. Enjoy!

## Finding Roots of equation x3-3×2+x+1=0

We will be using Newton Raphson method to find the root of this equation. Enjoy!

## Parallel Lamp Connection

Below is the lab work for Parallel Lamp Connection –

## Dim and Bright Connection

Here is the detailed lab work for a Dim and Bright lamp connection –

## Master Electric Connection

We will see how to operate 3 lamps using a master switch and also simultaneously operating them.

## Fluorescent Tube connection

Below is a simple step by step description of a Fluorescent Tube connection. We will see the list of materials needed, the procedure to build it observation and result.

## Finding measure of skewness and kurtosis for Poisson distribution

Here we define what Poisson Distribution is how to measure its skewness and kurtosis.

## Proving Inversion Mapping

Here we venture to prove that Inversion Mapping maps the totality of circles lines in the Z plane on to the same that of W plane –

## Find 4th Root of 1 and Square root of -8i

Here is an interesting solution to find nth root of a complex number Z. Here we use a general equation to find the 4th root of 1 and square of -8i. Enjoy!

## Finding Linear Fractional Transformation

Ok, here is a beautiful mathematical solution to find the Linear Fractional Transformation which maps |Z| <= 1 on to |W| <=1 such that Z = i/4 is mapped onto W=0. Also we will graph out the images of the lines x=c and y=c.

## Transformation of W=eZ

Here we discuss transformation of W = eZ

## Forming a Bi-Linear Transformation which maps a set of points

Here is a mathematical solution for forming a Bi-Linear Transformation which maps the points (1, i,-1) onto the points  (i,0,-i) and hence finding the image of |Z| < 1 and also finding the Invarient points of this Transformation 🙂

## How to determine which mathematical functions are analytic

Here is the solution on how to determine if a mathematical function is analytic –

## Mathematical solution for checking a certain function satisfy Laplace Equation

Here is an attempt to check if a function satisfies Laplace Equation and determining corresponding analytical function –

## Locus of a point Z satisfying condition |Z-1| + |Z+1| = 4

Here is a fun solution for Mathematics students to find the locus of a point Z satisfying condition |Z-1| + |Z+1| = 4 –

## ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) in action

Suppose machine A wants to send its message packets to B which has the IP address 1B. A only knows B’s IP address and thus as a first step, sends an ARP request to B to get machine B’S hardware address. Now, before sending the ARP request, A checks up in its ARP cache whether…

## ARP – Address Resolution Protocol

ARP or Address Resolution Protocol is used to map Internet addresses to physical addresses. Address resolution is the process of mapping Internet IP addresses into physical addresses. Two machines in the internet cannot communicate with each other  without knowing each others actual physical address i.e address of its hardware interface, for e.g. the network interface…

Below are couple major weaknesses of IP addresses – A machine cannot be assigned a permanent IP address i.e. it should change when the machine is connected to different physical networks When class C networks grow beyond 255 hosts, they  should be changed to class B networks. Such changes in IP addresses requires high labor,…

## ‘This’ network and ‘this’ host address

An IP address with all 0’s in the host id, refers to this particular and the IP addresses with all 0’s in the network id refers to this particular network. This network addressing is useful in cases when a host wants to communicate with a network whose network address the host sends the ‘this’ type…

Network and Broadcast address are derived from the general IP addresses and are used for specific or reserved applications. Network address refers to the IP addresses with all the bits in the host address 0s. The network address refers to the network itself. For e.g, a class A address 96.0.0.0 refers to the same class…

Internet address refers to the unique identification or address assigned to each machine in the physical network. The basic need for assigning Internet address is to identify every machine in the network. Internet address is defined as the 32-bit (or 64 bit) address assigned to each machine on the internet so as to identify that…

## Internet Architecture

As shown above, the Internet consists of various physical networks (Net1 … Netn) connected together as a single large network. Each network may have host machines connected or other networks connected within it. G1 .. Gn represents the Gateways or routers that connects two networks. Gateways or routers routes data packets from a host in…

## Internetworking Concept and Architectural Model

Internetworking is the technology that makes it possible to interconnect many disparate physical networks with diverse underlying hardware technologies and make them function as a coordinated unit. The internetworking / Internet technology hides the details of network hardware and permits computers to communicate independent of their physical network connections. When we speak of interworking technology, we…

## ARPANET Technology

ARPANET (Advanced research project agency network) is the oldest wide area packet switched network build by the DARPA (Defense advanced research project agency). Physically ARPANET consisted of about 50 BBN corp’s C30 and C300 minicomputers called the PSNs (packet switching nodes) that were scattered over US and Europe. Each PSN was a dedicated packet switching…

## ProNET variation – Start topology

ProNET variation as star topology is as shown below – The 3 hosts are connected logically by a ring connection and physically by a start connection via a wire center. The wire center consists of relays R1, R2, R3, R4 so that the relays connects the corresponding host to the wire center via the interface….

## ProNET 10 Token recovery

ProNET 10 token recovery is essential to handle situations of loss of token when the host want to transmit. Such token loses occur due to malfunction or electronic interference that damages the token. To recover the token, we implement two timers at each station – flag timers and token timers. The flag timer is reset…

## ProNET Token Ring Technology

ProNET Token ring technology is an alternative to ethernet technology and it also works fairly good speeds. It uses token ring technology- Token ring network as shown above consists of hosts connected as a ring via wires that comes out of each host and connected to the other host. Each host in the network engage…