## Binary Tree

Binary Tree is a basic data structure that is used behind the scenes of all major technologies whether it’s a Database system or operating system,...

## Testing convergence of a sample Logarithmic series using Leibnitz’s rule

Below is the solution to test convergence of a sample Logarithmic series –...

## Finding maximum power transmitted neglecting centrifugal tension

Below is a sample problem and its solution to find maximum power transmitted in a scenario where we need to neglect centrifugal tension....

## Finding power transmitted by a belt given max tension

Below is the solution to find power transmitted by a belt given maximum permissible tension and rpm of a larger pulley –...

## Finding maximum power transmitted from maximum belt stress

Here is a problem involving V-belt where we calculate the maximum power transmitted from the maximum belt stress and other attributes in the system –...

## Finding Velocity and maximum power transmitted

Here is an interesting solution to find velocity and maximum power transmitted –...

## Finding Torque and power transmitted

Here is an interesting problem and solution to calculate torque and power transmitted of a shaft and pulley system. You can easily extend this to...

## Finding maximum power transmitted and initial tension

Its interesting to use the mechanical formulas to find maximum power transmitted and initial tension given the characteristic features of a flat belt pulley system....

## Finding power transmitted by a pulley

Here is a real life mechanical problem to solve – Two parallel shafts whose center lines are 4.8m apart are connected on an open belt...

## Finding maximum cross sectional area of a Mechanical belt

Question: A leather belt transmits 30 KW from a pulley 750 mm diameter which runs at 500 rpm. The belt is in contact with the...

## Finding Tight side and Slack side tension of a mechanical belt

Question: An electric motor provides 6.6 KW to a belt driven pulley 125 mm in diameter. The speed of the pulley is 1050 rpm. Calculate the...

## Discussing Convergence of Iteration and Newton Raphson Methods

We use various Numerical methods to solve algebraic and transcendental equations. All these methods converge the result to a single root after various approximations specific...

## Solving Equations by Jacobi’s Iteration Method

Jacobi’s Iteration method is an interesting method to solve equations by simple iteration method. Here is an example –  ...

## Solving a set of equations using Gauss Seidal Elimination Method

Here is an excellent example of Gauss Seidal elimination method to solve a set of equations –...

## Finding Inverse of a Matrix using Gauss Elimination Method

Here is an intelligent and simple way to find the inverse of a matrix using Gauss Elimination method –...

## Gauss Jordan Elimination Method

Here is a well explained solution to solve a set of equations using Gauss Jordan Elimination method –...

## Gauss Elimination Method

Below is a well explained solution for a set of equations using Gauss Elimination method. Enjoy!  ...

## Finding Roots of equation x3-3×2+x+1=0

We will be using Newton Raphson method to find the root of this equation. Enjoy!...

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## Parallel Lamp Connection

Below is the lab work for Parallel Lamp Connection –...

## Dim and Bright Connection

Here is the detailed lab work for a Dim and Bright lamp connection – ...

## Master Electric Connection

We will see how to operate 3 lamps using a master switch and also simultaneously operating them....

## Fluorescent Tube connection

Below is a simple step by step description of a Fluorescent Tube connection. We will see the list of materials needed, the procedure to build...

## Finding measure of skewness and kurtosis for Poisson distribution

Here we define what Poisson Distribution is how to measure its skewness and kurtosis....

## Proving Inversion Mapping

Here we venture to prove that Inversion Mapping maps the totality of circles lines in the Z plane on to the same that of W plane...

## Find 4th Root of 1 and Square root of -8i

Here is an interesting solution to find nth root of a complex number Z. Here we use a general equation to find the 4th root...

## Finding Linear Fractional Transformation

Ok, here is a beautiful mathematical solution to find the Linear Fractional Transformation which maps |Z| <= 1 on to |W| <=1 such that Z =...

## Transformation of W=eZ

Here we discuss transformation of W = eZ...

## Forming a Bi-Linear Transformation which maps a set of points

Here is a mathematical solution for forming a Bi-Linear Transformation which maps the points (1, i,-1) onto the points  (i,0,-i) and hence finding the image of...

## How to determine which mathematical functions are analytic

Here is the solution on how to determine if a mathematical function is analytic –...

## Mathematical solution for checking a certain function satisfy Laplace Equation

Here is an attempt to check if a function satisfies Laplace Equation and determining corresponding analytical function –...

## Locus of a point Z satisfying condition |Z-1| + |Z+1| = 4

Here is a fun solution for Mathematics students to find the locus of a point Z satisfying condition |Z-1| + |Z+1| = 4 –  ...

## ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) in action

Suppose machine A wants to send its message packets to B which has the IP address 1B. A only knows B’s IP address and thus...

## ARP – Address Resolution Protocol

Below are couple major weaknesses of IP addresses – A machine cannot be assigned a permanent IP address i.e. it should change when the machine...

## ‘This’ network and ‘this’ host address

An IP address with all 0’s in the host id, refers to this particular and the IP addresses with all 0’s in the network id...

Network and Broadcast address are derived from the general IP addresses and are used for specific or reserved applications. Network address refers to the IP...

Internet address refers to the unique identification or address assigned to each machine in the physical network. The basic need for assigning Internet address is...

## Internet Architecture

As shown above, the Internet consists of various physical networks (Net1 … Netn) connected together as a single large network. Each network may have host...

## Internetworking Concept and Architectural Model

Internetworking is the technology that makes it possible to interconnect many disparate physical networks with diverse underlying hardware technologies and make them function as a coordinated...

## ARPANET Technology

ARPANET (Advanced research project agency network) is the oldest wide area packet switched network build by the DARPA (Defense advanced research project agency). Physically ARPANET...

## ProNET variation – Start topology

ProNET variation as star topology is as shown below – The 3 hosts are connected logically by a ring connection and physically by a start...

## ProNET 10 Token recovery

ProNET 10 token recovery is essential to handle situations of loss of token when the host want to transmit. Such token loses occur due to...

## ProNET Token Ring Technology

ProNET Token ring technology is an alternative to ethernet technology and it also works fairly good speeds. It uses token ring technology- Token ring network...

## Ethernet Variations

Ethernet technology started with using the costly coaxial cables. Now it is possible to carry ethernet frames over cost-effective and cheaper twisted pair cables supporting...

## Ethernet Bridges

Ethernet bridge is a fast computer with two Ethernet interfaces and a fixed program that improve upon the functions of repeaters by replicating the packets,...

## Ethernet addressing and frame format

Ethernet Addresses refers to the unique physical/hardware address assigned or hardcoded on to the Ethernet interface card in 48 bits machine readable form. Physical ethernet...

## Collission detection and Recovery in Ethernet

Ethernet data transmission enabled by TCP/IP is a best-effort delivery method. i.e the sender is given no information about whether the data packets were received...

## Ethernet Hardware and basic architecture

A cross section of a Ethernet cable is as shown below – Ethernet is typically a 10Mbps local area packet switched network technology. The cross...

## LAN, WAN and MAN

WAN (Wide Area Network) connects machines over widely separated geographical locations. A WAN usually consists of various packet switches installed at various points on the...

## Differences between TCP/IP internet services and others

TCP/IP internet services and other internetworking services can be compared on the basis of following features of TCP/IP internet – Network Topology Independence While TCP/IP...

## Internetworking

Internetworking is the technology that makes it possible to interconnect many disparate physical networks with diverse underlying hardware technologies and make them function as a coordinated...

## ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network

ISDN, though not popular in US, it is still one of the most popular data communication networks in UK, India and many other European countries....

## Basics setup of Mobile Communication services

One of the fastest growing telecommunication industry is obviously mobile radio communication. Below figure shows a basic architecture of such a mobile communication network –...

## Digitized Telephone services

In the past, we had manual exchanges which involved a great task in switching and routing of calls to various subscribers that increased network traffic...

## Evolution of Data Communication Systems

Almost all of the Data communication systems across the world evolved from Telegraph systems. Later with developments in the telephone systems, it was now possible...

## Data Communication – Basic Definition and setup

Data communication is the function of transporting digital signal from one digital device to another. Data transmission and data communications means two different things. Data...

## Simple HTTP log analyzer

Here is a simple light weight HTTP analyzer written in PHP. I wrote this to brush up my skills writing schedulers for a typical LAMP...

## Stack Vs Heap

Stack and Heap refers to 2 distinct memory areas utilized by an executing program based on the data type of data that it deals at...

## What is the purpose of static modifier?

Static modifier is commonly used in all programming languages. There are two distinct reasons for using the static modifier whether its C, Java, C#, PHP or...