# Category: C

## Minimal Spanning Trees and Kruskal’s Algorithm

Given a weighted graph G, it is often desired to generate a spanning tree such that the sum of the weights of the tree edges...

## Depth First and Breadth First Traversal

Depth first traversal of a Graph could be used to traverse a directed or un-directed graph and thus creating a spanning tree. Depth first traversal...

## Graph Traversals and Spanning Forests

Connected Graph A graph is said to be connected if there is a path between any two of its nodes. Cycle A Path from a...

## Linked representation of Graphs in C

There are many in-inadequacies in using the Adjacency Matrix representation of Graphs. Once such inadequacy is the difficulty in adding or deleting nodes while data...

## Implementing Ford Fulkerson’s Algorithm in C To Maximize Network Flow

Flow Problem The main objective of a flow problem is to maximize the amount of an item being delivered from one point of a system...

## Implementation of Warshal’s Algorithm in C to find Path Matrices of a Graph

Warshal’s Algorithm can be applied to find the Path Matrices and this the TRANSITIVE CLOSURE of a graph given its adj matrix. Warshal’s algorithm is...

## Representing Graphs and Networks in C

A Graph is a data structure that consists of a set of nodes interconnected by directed or un-directed arcs. For a DIRECTED Graph, the ordered pair of nodes...

Merge Sort Merge Sort is a process of combining more than one sorted files into a single sorted file. The procedure is to divide a...

## Insertion Sort and its implementation in C

Insertion Sort is a simple implementation of the general straight selection sort. A simple routine for insertion sort can be written as below – void insertionsort(int...

## Heap Tree Sort and its implementation in C

Heap is an almost complete Binary Tree implemented in a sequential format such that the value at any of the nodes (nd) is >= or <=...

## Binary Tree Sort in C

Binary Tree Sort uses a Binary search tree. The various steps involved in such a sort would be – Construct a binary tree with the given...

## Selection Sort

A Selection sorting technique uses a general algorithm which uses an ascending or descending priority queue. The idea would be to pre-process input array X[i] into...

## Bubble Sort in C

Lets explain Bubble sort by illustrating tow specific examples involving steps where smaller numbers bubbles to first and when larger numbers bubbles to last. Number...

## Efficiency and Order of a Sorting Program

Efficiency Considerations The following are the efficiency considerations while planning for a sorting program / algorithm – Time required to code the program and the...

## Recursive C program for Towers of Hanoi

Towers of Hanoi problem consists of 3 pegs A, B and C. Let n denote number of disks in peg A. The objective is to...

## Efficiency of Recursion

In general cases, a non-recursive program runs more efficiently than a recursive program since a recursive program requires more execution time to enter and exit...

## Recursion in C

Recursion Recursion and Iteration are two different concepts of achieving a result by a number of repeated operations. Iteration involves use of for, while and...

Doubly Linked lists eliminates below drawbacks of circular lists – not able to traverse backward not able to delete and node given only points to...

## Simulation of Josephus Problem using Circular lists

Josephus Problem Josephus problem is that some soldiers are being surrounded by their enemies and there is only one horse to escape i.e. only one...

## Dynamic Circular Linked Lists in C

Circular lists eliminates same drawbacks of linear lists. In as circular list it is assumed that items are inserted at the front and the list...

## Advantages of Dynamic representation of Lists over its Array implementation

Below are the advantages of Dynamic representation of Lists over its Array implementation –  No advanced knowledge of number of nodes is required  No memory...

## Dynamic Linked Lists as Queues in C

When Dynamic Linked Lists are represented as Queues, the first node represents front of queue given by q.front and last node represents the rear of...

## Implementing Dynamic Linked Lists in C

List is a type of dynamic data structure which rectifies certain drawbacks of Stacks and Queues. Lists generally uses the concept of pointers which points...

## Queues and its implementation in C

A Queue is a First In First Out (FIFO) which is an ordered collection of items which are deleted at the front end and inserted...

## Game Trees

Game Tree is one of the applications of Binary Trees. For example the one implemented for the Tic-Tac-Toe Game. X | X | X O...

## Representing Lists As Binary Trees in C

Case 1: A list could be represented as a Binary Tree with all the list elements along with their information at the leaf nodes. For...

## HUFFMAN Algorithm and its implementation in C

Huffman trees are used as message encoding and message decoding trees which is the basic construct of compression and de. The specialty of Huffman tree...

## Threaded Binary Tree and its implementation in C

Threaded Binary Trees are those in which the NULL right pointers of all nodes are THREADED to its immediate inorder successor in the Binary Tree. Such...

## Traversing a Binary Tree in C

There are generally 3 traversal strategies for Binary Trees – INORDER, PREORDER and POSTORDER. For eg:, the inorder, preorder and postorder traversal of an expression tree...

## C program implementing Binary Tree Search to find duplicates of a file

A Binary Search is such a Binary Tree in which the info field of any of the nodes to the left of a particular node nd...

## Binary Tree representation and Primitive Operations on a Binary Tree in C

Binary Trees are one of the core data structures used in any programming language to implement complex systems. C programming language offers various binary tree...

## C program to print sum up-to each individual preceding number until the entered number

Here is a C program which accepts an integer and prints out sum from 1 to 1, 1 to 2, 1 to 3 …… 1...

## C program for Hailstones series

Hailstones is a sequence of numbers that could be generated from any positive number by performing a specific operation on it until it reaches 1....

## C program to generate random numbers in any range

Here is a C program to generate random numbers between any range of two digit numbers – #include #include main(){ int s, a, b, n,...

## for loops in C

The ‘for’  loop is another important looping structure which could replace ‘while’  and ‘do .. while’ loops. It has a special feature that the initialization,...

## C program to test for a prime number

Below is a C program to test for a prime number – main(){ float n, count = 0; i = 3; a; printf("\nEnter any number...

## C program to implement Russian Peasant

Here is a C program that I wrote years back to implement Russian Peasant method of an interesting multiplication technique – main(){ int a, b,...

## C program to find numbers whose sum of cubes of individual numbers is that number

Here is an implementation of while loop in C to find numbers whose sum of cubes of individual numbers is that number. You can go...

## C program to find circumference and area of a circle from given radius

Here is a simple C program to find circumference and area of a circle from given radius – main(){ float r, pi = 3.1416, c, area;...

## While Loop in C

Like do-while loop, While loop is the most commonly used looping construct to repeat a process or calculation for a set or collection of inputs...

## C program to find the sum of squares of first n natural numbers

Here is a simple C program to find the sum of squares of first n natural numbers using do-while looping construct – main(){ int n,...

## Do – While Loops in C

Looping constructs is an important programming language technique to repeat a process or calculation for a set or collection of inputs or storage based on...

## Sample C program showing if – else constructs

Below are simple C programs for beginners to learn if-else decision construct. Example 1: Program to check if a number is odd or even main...

## C Program to check for leap year

Here is a C program to check for leap year – main () { int year; printf("Please enter any year as 4 digits>> "); scanf("%d",...

## Making decision in C program

Decision making is an important aspect of programming language that enables the programmer to arrive at a conclusion based on certain data processing, comparisons and conditional...

## Declaring variables in C language

C programming language allows to define and classify data so we can use it appropriately in various parts of the program in the correct form...

## C Programming Language

C language developed at Bell lab by Dennis Ritchie on UNIX environment. UNIX was later rewritten in C. An earlier version of C is BCPL...

## Recursive C program for Binary search

Below is an example Recursive C program to perform Binary – int binsearch(int low, int high, in a, X){ int mid; if(low > high){ return(-1);...

## Recursive C program to print Fibonacci series

Below is an example recursive C program to return Fibonacci series for a given number – int fibonacci (int x){ if(n < 0){ printf("Invalid input");...

## C program for finding factorial by recursion

Here is a C program to find a factorial by recursive method – int factorial (int x ) { return ( n==0? 1: n*(fact(n-1))); }...

## Bubble sort in C

Simple bubble sort in C – for (i=0; i<n-1; i++){ for(j=i+1; j<n; j++){ if(x[j] < x[i]){ temp = x[j]; x[j] = x[i]; x[i] = temp;...

## Tree representation in C

Below is an example to represent a Tree structure in C using struct...

## File Operation in C

Below is a simple C program to perform file operation – include <stdlib.h> main() { FILE * file_source char * file_name = (char*) malloc (sizeof...

## C program to evaluate the 1st derivative of a function at any given point

Writing C programs for numerical differentiation is interesting and fun. Here is one that I wrote years back. Enjoy!  ...

## C Program to evaluate forward difference

Below is a C program to evaluate forward difference and thus print a forward difference table for n function values –...

## C program to convert a postfix string to prefix form

Below is sample C program to convert a postfix string to prefix form. Also included is detailed flow chart of the program and dry run...

## C program to convert a prefix string to infix form

Below is sample C program to convert a prefix string to infix form. Also included is detailed flow chart of the program and dry run...

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## Example for Preorder and Postorder traversal of a Binary tree

Below is an example that I prepared for preorder and postorder traversal of a Binary Tree – enjoy!...

## Traversing a Binary Tree in Postorder

Below is the algorithm and C routine for traversing a Binary Tree in postorder.  ...