# Category: All Articles

## Gauss Jordan Elimination Method

Here is a well explained solution to solve a set of equations using Gauss Jordan Elimination method –...

## Gauss Elimination Method

Below is a well explained solution for a set of equations using Gauss Elimination method. Enjoy!  ...

## Finding Roots of equation x3-3×2+x+1=0

We will be using Newton Raphson method to find the root of this equation. Enjoy!...

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## Parallel Lamp Connection

Below is the lab work for Parallel Lamp Connection –...

## Dim and Bright Connection

Here is the detailed lab work for a Dim and Bright lamp connection – ...

## Master Electric Connection

We will see how to operate 3 lamps using a master switch and also simultaneously operating them....

## Fluorescent Tube connection

Below is a simple step by step description of a Fluorescent Tube connection. We will see the list of materials needed, the procedure to build...

## Finding measure of skewness and kurtosis for Poisson distribution

Here we define what Poisson Distribution is how to measure its skewness and kurtosis....

## Proving Inversion Mapping

Here we venture to prove that Inversion Mapping maps the totality of circles lines in the Z plane on to the same that of W plane...

## Find 4th Root of 1 and Square root of -8i

Here is an interesting solution to find nth root of a complex number Z. Here we use a general equation to find the 4th root...

## Finding Linear Fractional Transformation

Ok, here is a beautiful mathematical solution to find the Linear Fractional Transformation which maps |Z| <= 1 on to |W| <=1 such that Z =...

## Transformation of W=eZ

Here we discuss transformation of W = eZ...

## Forming a Bi-Linear Transformation which maps a set of points

Here is a mathematical solution for forming a Bi-Linear Transformation which maps the points (1, i,-1) onto the points  (i,0,-i) and hence finding the image of...

## How to determine which mathematical functions are analytic

Here is the solution on how to determine if a mathematical function is analytic –...

## Mathematical solution for checking a certain function satisfy Laplace Equation

Here is an attempt to check if a function satisfies Laplace Equation and determining corresponding analytical function –...

## Locus of a point Z satisfying condition |Z-1| + |Z+1| = 4

Here is a fun solution for Mathematics students to find the locus of a point Z satisfying condition |Z-1| + |Z+1| = 4 –  ...

## ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) in action

Suppose machine A wants to send its message packets to B which has the IP address 1B. A only knows B’s IP address and thus...

## ARP – Address Resolution Protocol

Below are couple major weaknesses of IP addresses – A machine cannot be assigned a permanent IP address i.e. it should change when the machine...

## ‘This’ network and ‘this’ host address

An IP address with all 0’s in the host id, refers to this particular and the IP addresses with all 0’s in the network id...

Network and Broadcast address are derived from the general IP addresses and are used for specific or reserved applications. Network address refers to the IP...

Internet address refers to the unique identification or address assigned to each machine in the physical network. The basic need for assigning Internet address is...

## Internet Architecture

As shown above, the Internet consists of various physical networks (Net1 … Netn) connected together as a single large network. Each network may have host...

## Internetworking Concept and Architectural Model

Internetworking is the technology that makes it possible to interconnect many disparate physical networks with diverse underlying hardware technologies and make them function as a coordinated...

## ARPANET Technology

ARPANET (Advanced research project agency network) is the oldest wide area packet switched network build by the DARPA (Defense advanced research project agency). Physically ARPANET...

## ProNET variation – Start topology

ProNET variation as star topology is as shown below – The 3 hosts are connected logically by a ring connection and physically by a start...

## ProNET 10 Token recovery

ProNET 10 token recovery is essential to handle situations of loss of token when the host want to transmit. Such token loses occur due to...

## ProNET Token Ring Technology

ProNET Token ring technology is an alternative to ethernet technology and it also works fairly good speeds. It uses token ring technology- Token ring network...

## Ethernet Variations

Ethernet technology started with using the costly coaxial cables. Now it is possible to carry ethernet frames over cost-effective and cheaper twisted pair cables supporting...

## Ethernet Bridges

Ethernet bridge is a fast computer with two Ethernet interfaces and a fixed program that improve upon the functions of repeaters by replicating the packets,...

## Ethernet addressing and frame format

Ethernet Addresses refers to the unique physical/hardware address assigned or hardcoded on to the Ethernet interface card in 48 bits machine readable form. Physical ethernet...

## Collission detection and Recovery in Ethernet

Ethernet data transmission enabled by TCP/IP is a best-effort delivery method. i.e the sender is given no information about whether the data packets were received...

## Ethernet Hardware and basic architecture

A cross section of a Ethernet cable is as shown below – Ethernet is typically a 10Mbps local area packet switched network technology. The cross...

## LAN, WAN and MAN

WAN (Wide Area Network) connects machines over widely separated geographical locations. A WAN usually consists of various packet switches installed at various points on the...

## Differences between TCP/IP internet services and others

TCP/IP internet services and other internetworking services can be compared on the basis of following features of TCP/IP internet – Network Topology Independence While TCP/IP...

## Internetworking

Internetworking is the technology that makes it possible to interconnect many disparate physical networks with diverse underlying hardware technologies and make them function as a coordinated...

## ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network

ISDN, though not popular in US, it is still one of the most popular data communication networks in UK, India and many other European countries....

## Basics setup of Mobile Communication services

One of the fastest growing telecommunication industry is obviously mobile radio communication. Below figure shows a basic architecture of such a mobile communication network –...

## Digitized Telephone services

In the past, we had manual exchanges which involved a great task in switching and routing of calls to various subscribers that increased network traffic...

## Evolution of Data Communication Systems

Almost all of the Data communication systems across the world evolved from Telegraph systems. Later with developments in the telephone systems, it was now possible...

## Data Communication – Basic Definition and setup

Data communication is the function of transporting digital signal from one digital device to another. Data transmission and data communications means two different things. Data...

## Simple HTTP log analyzer

Here is a simple light weight HTTP analyzer written in PHP. I wrote this to brush up my skills writing schedulers for a typical LAMP...

## Stack Vs Heap

Stack and Heap refers to 2 distinct memory areas utilized by an executing program based on the data type of data that it deals at...

## What is the purpose of static modifier?

Static modifier is commonly used in all programming languages. There are two distinct reasons for using the static modifier whether its C, Java, C#, PHP or...

## Arrays Vs Lists – Which one to use?

Both Arrays and Lists helps us to store list of elements. But which one to choose is an important design decision that is directly related...

## How to stop bulk spam emails to my mail account?

If you are not one of the people who have had the bad experience of having your email account being subjected to a bulk spam...

## C# File, Directory Manipulation

C# provide two versions of File, Directory manipulation options – 1) Static methods based and 2) Instance methods based. Static method based operations are provided...

## MVC Architecture

MVC architecture has been in place since past 4 decades or so when GUI (Graphical Use Interfaces) started to be used widely. The idea is simple...

## C# Program to find Age

Below is a C# program to find Age from a Date of Birth. Enjoy! public class Person    {        public string Name { get; set; }        public Person(DateTime birthdate)        {            BirthDate = birthdate;        }        public DateTime BirthDate { get; private set; }        public int Age{                        get { ...

## Usage of params modifier in C#

Lets see how to use params modifier in C#. The perfect example is Calculator implementation. ‘params’ access modifier when used on a method argument, allows...

Constructors need to be overloaded depending on what extend of data/properties need to be initialized in order to set the object to a particular state....

## Using LINQ in C#

LINQ or Language Integrated Query gives the capability to query objects and C# allows two distinctive ways to achieve this – You can either use LINQ...

## Using DateTime in C#

Below is very simple usage of DateTime – class DateTimePr     {         static void Main(string args)         {             var datetime = new DateTime();             var now = DateTime.Now;             var today = DateTime.Today;             Console.WriteLine(now);             Console.WriteLine(today);             Console.WriteLine(now.Hour);             Console.WriteLine(now.ToLongDateString());             Console.WriteLine(now.ToString());         }     }...

## Reading a file in C#

Below is a simple program in C# that reads a file and outputs the longest word in it. Enjoy! using System; using System.IO; using System.Collections.Generic; namespace <yourNS> {     class FilesNDirs...

## Finding Lowest number from a List in C#

Below is a simple program to find the lowest number from a list of numbers – using System; using System.Collections.Generic; namespace GroundCSApp {     class GetSmallest     {         public static void Main(string argvs)         {             var numlist = new List<int> { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 };...

## Simple C# Programs

Here is some basic, simple, handy C# programs for you to enjoy and refresh your memory – using GroundCSApp; using System; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.Linq; namespace GroundCSApp {     public enum ShippingMethod     {...

## Code Reuse via Composition in C#

Composition is a common object oriented concept that enables us to implement loose coupling as well as code-reuse. Lot of times we recommend our developers...

## Constructor Inheritance in C#

Like any other Object Oriented Programming language, C# does not allow parent constructor to be automatically inherited. It need to explicitly defined in the derived...

## Dynamic Typing in C#

Well, C# provides this option to prove that it is flexible. If you are too fond of dynamic typing, use scripting languages such as PHP!...